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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

be completely absent in most of those who do the
work, Some may be proud of the excellence of the
cars produced, but most, through their unions, are
mainly concerned with wages and hours of work.
To a considerable extent, this evil is inseparable
from mechanization combined with large size. Owing
to the former, no man makes a large part of a car,
but only one small share of some one part; a great
deal of work requires little skill, and is completely
monotonous. Owing to the latter (the large size of
the organization) the group who collectively make
a car have no unity and no sense of solidarity as
between management and employees. There is
solidarity among the wage-earners, and there may be
solidarity in the management. But the solidarity of
the wage-earners has no relation to the product; it
is concerned to increase wages and diminish hours^
of work. The management may have a pride in the
product, but when an industry is thoroughly com-
mercialized there is a tendency to think only of
profit, which may often be secured more easily by
advertisement than by improved workmanship.
Two things have led to a diminished pride in
workmanship. The earlier was the invention of
currency; the later was mass production. Currency
led to the valuation of an article by its price, which
is something not intrinsic, but an abstraction shared
with other commodities. Things not made to be
exchanged may be valued for what they are, not for
what they will buy. Cottage gardens in country